Radiology / CT / MR / US

Cephalization - The distribution of pulmonary flow from the bases to the apices of the lung due to pulmonary edema.

The 5 radiographic densities: air, fat, soft tissue, calcium, metal. (AFSCM)

A airway
B bone
C cardiac shadow
D diaphragm
E extras
F lung fields
G gastric bubble
Tensor - flow imaging
Centographic Murphy sign is the most accurate sign for cholecystitis.
Remeber 'Satisfaction of Search' problem when not using a method to analyze CXRs.

What are the initial imaging studies for abd pain by location ? REF

Quick Survey - Equivalent to PIRA (Penetration, Inspiration Rotation, Angulation) for X-Rays

X level - mastoids
black = strokes
white = hemorrhage
ventricle and sulcal size
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Indications for the different modalities:

-  highly sensitive for detecting effusion of the hip joint.
Bone scintigraphy - excellent for evaluating a limping child when the history, physical examination, and radiographic and sonographic findings fail to localize the pathology.
CT - indicated when cortical bone must be visualized.
MRI -  excellent visualization of joints, soft tissues, cartilage, and medullary bone. It is especially useful for confirming osteomyelitis, delineating the extent of malignancies, identifying stress fractures, and diagnosing early Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease.
Plain film - often obtained as an initial imaging modality in any child with a limp. However, films may be normal in patients with septic arthritis, providing a false-negative result. 

Hounsfield Units - Density comparison to fat (-20 to -150) and Kidney (20 to 150).

Anatomical structures to check

  • 1. Trachea/bronchi
  • 2. Hilar structures
  • 3. Lung zones
  • 4. Pleura
  • 5. Lung lobes/fissures
  • 6. Costophrenic angles
  • 7. Diaphragm
  • 8. Heart
  • 9. Mediastinum
  • 10. Soft tissues
  • 11. Bones