Osteoporosis - def. as low-impact fx or BMD < 2.5. -2.5 to -1.0 = osteopenia. REF

To remember think "NaiL" osterporosis. 

The only approved treatments for male osteoporosis are alendronate and recombinant parathyroid hormone.  https://nf.aafp.org/Assessment/Take/728/c/2b32b9ab-8c12-49bf-b390-43c2a00a7156

How does phenytoin cause osteoporosis ? REF

DRI for vitamin D in women ? REF

Prednisone long term tx should be supplemented with what ? REF

Use Rloxifine in a 67 yo w/ T-score 2.7 and family h/p breast cancer. REF
- Mechanism of action for bisphosphonates ?
- Which ones decrease hip and vertebral fractures ?
- Which decreases fracture risk of the spine only ?
- What is Calcitonin used for ?
- What is Teriparatide and what is it used for ?
- When is HRT recommended for osteoporosis ?

Thiazide diuretics improve osteoporosis.  See "Heart Disease

Calcitonin, either intranasal or subcutaneous, provides pain relief within a few days in many patients with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. REF